Compare Christianity vs. Islam vs. Judaism


Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are all monotheistic religions founded in the Middle East. Often grouped together as “Abrahamic religions," these three faiths share common history and traditions, a respect for the Bible, a conviction that there is one God, a belief in prophets and divine revelation, and a holy city in Jerusalem, among other things. But Christianity, Islam and Judaism also differ significantly in matters of belief and practice, from their understanding of God to the identity of the prophets and Jesus and the authority of various scriptures. The following chart is intended to be a starting point for understanding these ancient religions and their relationships to one another.

 ChristianityIslamJudaism
origins Based on life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, c. 30 CE, Roman province of Palestine. Based on teachings of the Prophet Muhammad; founded 622 CE in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The religion of the Hebrews (c. 1300 BC), especially after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD.
major splits Catholic-Orthodox (1054); Catholic-Protestant (1500s) Shia-Sunni (c. 650 CE) Reform-Orthodox (1800s CE)
original language Aramaic and Greek Arabic Hebrew
adherents 2 billion 1.3 billion 14 million
texts Bible (Hebrew Bible + New Testament) Qur'an (Scripture); Hadith (tradition) Hebrew Bible (Tanakh); Talmud
god(s) Holy Trinity = God the Father + God the Son + God the Holy Spirit One God (Allah in Arabic); the same God revealed (imperfectly) in the Jewish and Christian Bibles One God: Yahweh (YHVH)
Jesus was Son of God. Savior. Messiah. Second person of the Trinity. Incarnation of God. Word of God. True prophet sent by God, but message corrupted and superseded by Muhammad. false prophet
birth of Jesus virgin birth virgin birth normal birth
death of Jesus normal death plus spiritual suffering did not die; ascended into heaven during crucifixion normal death
house of worship church or chapel mosque synagogue or temple
main day of worship Sunday Friday Saturday