Comparison Charts
Fast Facts
Practices and Rituals


Items and Things

New and Featured in Christianity Section

What is Easter?

What are the Seven Deadly Sins?

New and Featured On Religion Facts

Compare Sunni and Shia Muslims

Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormonism Comparison Chart

Religion Facts offers

downloadable charts

Christian books

New Release

The Great Reformer

by Austen Ivereigh

New Release

40 Questions about the Historical Jesus

by Marvin Pate

Best seller

Jesus on Trial

by David Limbaugh

New Release

New Rules for Love, Sex, and Dating

by Andy Stanley

New Release

by Ruth Soukup

Article Info:
published: 3/17/04
updated: 8/14/14

The Apocrypha

What is the Apocrypha?

bible scroll

The Apocrypha, also known as the Deuterocanonical writings, are ancient books that are associated with the Hebrew bible (i.e. the Christian Old Testament), but are not part of the canon, which is the collection of officially accepted books. Most of these writings were composed from approximately the 5th to the 1st century, prior to the birth of Jesus Christ, and therefore do no contain stories about Christ, the apostles, or the Christian church..

At the time of Christ, two versions of the Old Testament (or Tanakh) were in circulation: a Hebrew version and a Greek version. The Greek version is known as the "Septuagint" (or "LXX" for short), after the legend that 72 translators working independently came up with identical Greek translations.

Several books appear in the Septuagint that do not appear in the Hebrew version, most of which were written during the "intertestamental period" between Nehemiah (c. 432 BC) and Jesus Christ (c. 5 BC). These books were regarded by Jewish sages as Sefarim hizonim, extraneous books, and were not part of the Hebrew canon. {1} Collectively these writings are known to both Jews and Christians as the "Apocrypha" or "Deuterocanonical" writings, meaning "second canon," which signifies that they are important, but not on par with the canon.

Traditionally, Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity uses these writings and include them in their published Bible, while Protestant Christianity does not include them in their Bible and don't derive doctrine from them, but may use them for learning history.

Catholic and Orthodox Christians regard most of these books called "Apocrypha" - meaning "hidden" - as canonical. They are called deuterocanonical by Catholics and anagignoskomena by the Orthodox.

The books of the Apocrypha

1 Esdras

1 Esdras is virtually identical to Ezra in the Hebrew bible (i.e. the Christian Old Testament), with one notable addition in the middle of chapter 4.

2 Esdras

The author of 2 Esdras asks questions, like Job, in order to understanding the meaning of suffering.


Tobit tells the story of a righteous Israelite, of the Tribe of Naphtali, named Tobit living in Nineveh after the deportation of the northern tribes of Israel to Assyria in 721 BC under Sargon II.


The narrative revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her Jewish countrymen for not trusting God to deliver them from their foreign conquerors.

Additions to Esther

Six additional chapters appear interspersed in the book of Esther, as it appears in the Hebrew Bible. Additional sections include an opening prologue that describes a dream had by Mordecai and another records prayers for God's intervention offered by Mordecai and Esther.

Wisdom of Solomon

This book is of genre of wisdom literature, similar to Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon.


Ecclesiasticus is a book of ethical teachings, composed from approximately 200 to 175 BC, and written by the Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem.

Baruch/Epistle of Jeremiah

This book is categorized with prophetical books like Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel. In canonical literature, Baruch ben Neriah, was Jeremiah's scribe.

Prayer of Azariah/Song of the Three Children

The Prayer of Azariah is a passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles.


Susanna was a Hebrew wife who was falsely accused. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe her. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

Bel and the Dragon

The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended book of Daniel. The chapter is formed of three independent narratives, which place Daniel at the court of Cyrus, king of the Persians.

The Prayer of Manasseh

The Prayer of Manasseh is 15 verses of the prayer of king Manasseh of Judah, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous kings of Judah (2 Kings 21:1–18; 2 Chronicles 33:1–9).

1 Maccabees

The setting of the book is about a century after the conquest of Judea by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, after Alexander's empire has been divided so that Judea was part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

2 Maccabees

2 Maccabees does not attempt to provide a complete account of the events of the period, instead covering only the period from the high priest Onias III and King Seleucus IV (180 BC) to the defeat of Nicanor in 161.


The early Christians, most of whom spoke Greek, used the Septuagint, which included the Apocrypha. The Apocrypha continued in common use among Christians until the Reformation, when the Hebrew canon was chosen as the Protestant Old Testament. Catholic and Orthodox Churches continue to use the Septuagint. The Catholic Church officially declared its choice at both the Council of Trent (1546) and the First Vatican Council (1869-70). {2} The only theological significance of the acceptance or nonacceptance of the Apocrypha is that the Books of the Maccabees support prayer for the dead, which Protestants do not accept. {3}

Recommended for You

More on Christianity

More Religious Texts

World Religions - Main pages

Christian beliefs

Christian denominations

Christian fast facts

Christian history

Christian holidays

Christian biographies

Christian practices

Christian symbols


Christian writings

Bahai writings

Buddhism writings

Hinduism writings

Islam writings

Jehovah's Witnesses writings

Judaism writings

Mormonism writings

Taoism writings






Jehovah's Witnesses




1. "Apocrypha,"Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions, 47.

2. "The Time Between the Testaments," NIV Study Bible, 1432.

3. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction, 2nd ed., 193.

© 2004-2015 ReligionFacts. All rights reserved. | About Us | How to Cite | Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Advertising Info
Site created with Dreamweaver. Web hosting by Blue Host. Menu powered by Milonic.
Religions: Religion Comparison Chart | Bahá'í | Buddhism | Chinese Religion | Christianity | Confucianism | Hinduism | Islam | Jehovah's Witnesses | Judaism | Mormonism | Rastafarianism | Scientology | Shinto | Taoism
Features: Big Religion Chart | Religions A-Z | Religious Symbols Gallery
ReligionFacts provides free, objective information on religion, world religions, comparative religion and religious topics.