The star and crescent was the symbol of the Ottoman Empire and appears on the flags of many Muslim countries. It has come to be used as a symbol of Islam, though it is not an official symbol and some Muslims reject it for polytheistic associations.
- Chevalier, Jean; John Buchanan-Brown (trans.). “crescent.” Penguin Dictionary of Symbols. Penguin Reference, 1997.
- Cooper, J. C.. “Crescent.” An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols. Thames & Hudson, 1987.