|adherents are called||Jews|
|sacred text||Hebrew Bible (Tanakh)|
|texts||Hebrew Bible (Tanakh); Talmud|
|date founded||c. 7th century BCE|
|early expansion||little expansion; mostly confined to Palestine area throughout history|
|founder(s)||no one founder|
|origins||The religion of the Hebrews (c. 1300 BC), especially after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD.|
|place founded||ancient Palestine|
|major splits||Reform-Orthodox (1800s CE)|
|afterlife||Not historically emphasized. Beliefs vary from no afterlife to shadowy existence to the World to Come (similar to heaven).|
|bad afterlife||eternal Gehenna or none|
|good afterlife||generally no afterlife; some believe in heaven|
|authority after Scripture||Talmud, Midrash, Responsa|
|god(s)||One God: Yahweh (YHVH)|
|human nature||two equal impulses, one good and one bad|
|Jesus was||false prophet|
|birth of Jesus||normal birth|
|death of Jesus||normal death|
|divinity of Jesus||no|
|resurrection of Jesus||no|
|future return of Jesus||denied|
|human life||Obey God's commandments, live ethically. Focus is more on this life than the next.|
|revelation method(s)||prophets, recorded in Hebrew Bible|
|God's role in salvation||divine revelation and forgiveness|
|view of sacred text||views vary|
|type of theism||strict monotheism|
|homosexual orientation||Orthodox: Condemned as rebellion against God.
Conservative: Neither condemned nor affirmed.
Reform: Generally accepted as an alternative.
|homosexual activity||Orthodox: Strongly condemned.
Conservative: Violation of Jewish law, disqualifies from Jewish marriage and religious leadership.
Reform: Approved in context of committed relationship; civil marriage supported, but generally not religious marriage.
|practices||Circumcision at birth, bar/bat mitzvah at adulthood. Synagogue services on Saturdays. No pork or other non-kosher foods. Holidays related to historical events.|
|main day of worship||Saturday|
|house of worship||synagogue or temple|