31. The State
1 Ibn 'Umar reported, I heard the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, say:
Every one of you is a ruler and every one of you shall be questioned about those under his rule; the king is a ruler and he shall be questioned about his subjects; and the man is a ruler in his family and he shall be questioned about those under his care; and the woman is a ruler in the house of her husband, and she shall be questioned about those under her care; and the servant is a ruler so far as the property of his master is concerned, and he shall be questioned about that which is entrusted to him."1
2 Anas reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:
"Hear and obey though a Negro whose head is like a raisin is appointed (to rule over you)."
3 Ibn 'Umar reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:
"To hear and obey (the authorities) is binding, so long as one is not commanded to disobey (God); when one is commanded to disobey (God), he shall not hear or obey."
4 Abū Hurairah reported, He heard the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, say:
"He who obeys me obeys Allāh, and he who disobeys me disobeys Allāh and he who obeys the amīr obeys me, and he who disobeys the amīr disobeys me; and the imām is an armour for protection4--the battle is fought for his defence and through him protection is sought. So if he commands the doing of duty to Allāh and does justice, he has a reward for it; and if he does otherwise,' he shall suffer the evil consequences of it."
5 'Alī said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said
"Obedience is due only in that which is good."
6 Ibn 'Abbās said, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:
"He who dislikes an order of his amīr should withhold himself from opposition, for he who rebels against the king by a span dies the death of jāhiliyyah."
7 Abū Sa'īd said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:
"The most excellent jihād is the uttering of truth in the presence of an unjust ruler."
8 'Ubādah ibn Sāmit said,
'The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, invited us so we swore allegiance to him; and among the conditions which he laid down on us to follow was this that he had a promise from us to hear and obey, whether we liked or disliked (an order,) and whether we were in adversity or ease, even if our rights were not granted; and that we should not dispute the authority of those entrusted with it, (adding) "Unless you see (an act of) open disbelief in which you have a clear argument from Allāh."
9 'Ā'ishah reported, 'The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, died and the Ansār gathered together around Sa'd ibn 'Ubādah in the porch of Banī Sā'idah and said, There shall be an amīr from among us and an amīr from among you (the Quraish). Thereupon Abu Bakr and 'Umar and Abū 'Ubaidah went to the them, and 'Umar intended to speak, but Abu Bakr asked him to remain silent ..... Then Abu Bakr spoke, and he spoke as the most eloquent of all people, and he said in his speech, We (the Quraish) are the amīrs and you (the Ansār) are the wazīrs. Thereupon Hubāb ibn al-Mundhir said, No! By Allāh! We will not accept this; there shall be an amīr from among us and an amīr from among you. But Abu Bakr repeated, No! We are amīrs and you are the wazīrs; they (the Quraish) are the most exalted of all Arabs in position and the noblest of them as regards family: so swear allegiance to 'Umar or Abū 'Ubaidah. 'Umar said, Rather we swear allegiance to thee, for thou art' our chief and the best of us and the most beloved of us to the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, So 'Umar took his hand and swore allegiance to him, and the people swore allegiance to him."
10 Anas reported, He heard the second sermon of 'Umar when he ascended the pulpit, and this was the day next to that on which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, died;... he said... But if Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, is dead, Allāh has given you the light9 by which you may be guided--(with it) Allāh guided Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, and Abū Bakr is the companion of the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, the second of the two; he is the fittest of the Muslims to control your affairs; so get up and swear allegiance to him. Some of them had sworn allegiance to him before this in the porch of Banī Sā'idah and the masses swore allegiance to him while he was on the pulpit.
11 'Ā'ishah said, When Abū Bakr was chosen as successor (to the Prophet), he said, My people know that the profession I followed was by no means lacking in supporting my family; and now I am occupied with the affairs of the Muslims, and so the family of Abu Bakr will eat out of this (public) treasury, and he (Abu Bakr) will do work for the Muslims.10
12 Ma'qil said, I heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, say:
"There is not a man whom Allāh grants to rule people, then he does not manage their affairs for (their) good but he will not smell the sweet odour of paradise."
13 Abū Burdah said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, sent Abu Mūsā and Mu'adh ibn Jabal to Yaman, and he appointed each one of them to govern a part of Yaman, and he said, Yaman was divided into two parts; then he said
"Be gentle (to the people) and be not hard (on them), and make (them) rejoice and do not incite (them) to aversion."
14 It is reported about 'Umar that when he appointed his governors, he laid down upon them certain conditions:
You shall not ride a horse that is not of Arabian breed; you shall not eat bread made of fine flour; you shall not wear fine clothes; and you shall not shut your doors against the needs of the people. If you do any of these things. punishment shall descend on you. Then he went forth with them to bid them farewell.
15 Hasan said, Allāh has given orders to the rulers that they shall not follow their low desires, and shall not fear people, and shall not take a small price for Allāh's injunctions.13
16 'Amr ibn Maimūn said, I saw 'Umar at Madīnah a few days before he was wounded. He stopped to talk with Hudhaifah ibn al-Yaman and 'Uthmān ibn al-Hunaif. He said, How have you acted (In 'Irāq)? Do you apprehend that you may have placed a burden on the land which it cannot bear? They said, We have placed on it a burden which it can easily bear.14 Then 'Umar said, If Allāh keep me alive, I would certainly leave the widows of the people of 'Iraq so (well-provided for) that they shall not need the help of any one after me.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . And he said, To him who succeeds me, I enjoin as regards the early Muhājirs that he shall respect their rights and protect their honour; and
I enjoin him to be kind to the Ansār . . . . receiving with approbation (the deeds of) those from among them who do good and pardoning those from among them who do evil; and
I enjoin him to do good to the dwellers of the towns, for they are the support of Islām and the collectors of tribute and the terror of the enemy, and that nothing shall be taken from them save what they can spare, (and that too) with their assent; and
I enjoin him to be good to the dwellers of the desert, for they are the original stock of the Arabs and the auxiliaries of Islām, so that only the less valuable of their cattle shall be taken (as zakāt), and these shall be returned to the poor among them;
I enjoin him as regards those under the protection of Allāh and the protection of His Messenger,17, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, that the covenant made with them shall be fulfilled, and that battles shall be fought for their defence, and that they shall be burdened only with what they can bear.
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