23. Cultivation of Land

1 Anas said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said

"There is no Muslim who plants a tree or cultivates land, then there eat of it birds or a man or an animal but it is a charity for him."

(B. 41:1.)

2 It is reported about Abū Umāmah that he said, when he saw a plough and some other agricultural implements, I heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, say:

"This does not enter the house of a people but it brings ingloriousness with it."

(B. 41:2.)

3 'Ā'ishah reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"Whoever cultivates land which is not the property of any one has a better title to it."

(B. 41:15.)

4 Abū Ja'far said, There was not in Madīnah any house of the emigrants but they cultivated (land) on one-third and one-fourth (of the produce) .... And 'Umar employed people (for cultivation) on condition that if 'Umar supplied the seed from his pocket, he should have one-half (of the produce), and if they supplied the seed, they should have such and such a portion.2

(B. 41:8.)

5 Ibn 'Umar reported, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, granted (the lands of) Khaibar to the Jews on condition that they worked thereon and cultivated them and they should have half of the produce.

(B. 41:11)

6 Rāfi' reported, They used to have land cultivated in the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, taking what grew on the water-courses or anything which the owner of the land reserved for himself. So the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, forbade this. I (the reporter) said to Rāfi', How is it if it is done on payment of dinārs and dirhams? Rāfi' said, There is no harm in taking dinārs and dirhams.

(B. 41:19.)

7 'Amr said,

I said to Tā'ūs, Thou shouldst give up Mukhābrah, for they say that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him. forbade it. He said ......, Ibn 'Abbās informed me that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, did not forbid this but he only said:

"If one of you gives it as a gift to his brother, it is better for him than that he takes for it a fixed payment."

(B. & M-Msh. 12:13)

8 Abū Hurairah reported, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"Excess of water should not be withheld, arresting thereby the growth of herbage."

(B. 42:2.)

9 The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said

"Whoever digs the well of Rūma, for him is paradise." So 'Uthmān had it dug.

(B. 62:7.)

10 Ibn 'Umar said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

Whoever takes any part of land without having a right to it, he shall be, as a punishment for it, sunk down into earth on the day of resurrection to the depth of seven earths."

(B. 46:13.)

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