16. Charity and Zakāt

1 Abū Mūsā reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"Sadaqah is incumbent on every Muslim."

They (his companions) said, O Prophet of Allāh! And (what about him) who has not got (anything to give)? He said:

"He should work with his hand and profit himself and give in charity."

They said, If he has nothing (in spite of this). He said:

"He should help the distressed one who is in need."

They said, If he is unable to do this. He said:

"He should do good deeds and refrain from doing evil--this is charity on his part "

(B. 24:31.)

2 Abū Hurairah reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"On every bone of the fingers charity is incumbent every day: One assists a man in riding his beast or in lifting his provisions to the back of the animal, this is charity; and a good word and every step which one takes in walking over to prayer is charity; and showing the way (to another) is charity.

(B. 56:72.)

3 Abū Hurairah reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"Removal from the way of that which is harmful is charity."

(B. 46:24.)

4 Jābir said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"Every good deed is charity, and it is a good deed that thou meet thy brother with a cheerful countenance and that thou pour water from thy bucket into the vessel of thy brother."

(Ah-Msh. 6:6.)

5 Abū Hurairah said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"The man who exerts himself on behalf of the widow and the poor one is like the one who struggles in the way of Allāh, or the one who keeps awake in the night (for prayers) and fasts during the day."

(B. 69:1.)

6 Abū Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him,

"A prostitute was forgiven--she passed by a dog, panting with its tongue out, on the top of a well containing water, almost dying with thirst; so she took off her boot and tied it to her head-covering and drew forth water for it; she was forgiven on account of this."

It was said: Is there a reward for us in (doing good to) the beasts? He said:

"In every animal having a liver fresh with life there is a reward."

(B. & M-Msh. 6:6.)

7 Abū Hurairah said on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, (who said):

"There is a man who gives a charity and he conceals it so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand spends."

(B. 24:11)

8 Zubair reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"If one of you should take his rope and bring a bundle of fire-wood on his back and then sell it, with which Allāh should save his honour, it is better for him than that he should beg of people whether give him or do not give him." (B. 24:50.)

9 Fātimah bint Qais said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"In (one's) wealth there is a due besides the zakāt;" then he recited: "It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West (2: 177.)"

(Tr-Msh. 6:6.)

10 Ibn 'Abbās reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, sent Mu'ādh to Yaman and said:

"Invite them to bear witness that there is no god but Allāh and that I am the Messenger of Allāh; if they accept this, tell them that Allāh has made obligatory on them five prayers in every day and night; if they accept this, tell them that Allāh has made obligatory in their wealth a charity which is taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor among them."

(B. 24:1)

11 Abū Sa'īd said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"There is no zakāt in what is less than five auqiyah (of silver), nor is there any zakāt in the case of less than five camels, nor is there any zakāt in what is less than five wasaq."3

(B. 24:4.)

12 'Ali said, 'The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"I remit (zakāt on) horses for riding and slaves for service; but pay the zakāt on silver, one dirham out of every forty dirhams; and there is no zakāt if there are 190 dirhams, but when it reaches two hundred, there are (to be paid) out of it five dirhams (of zakāt).

(Tr-Msh. 6:l.)

13 Ibn 'Umar said: The Messenger of Allāh peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said: "Whoever acquires wealth, there is no zakāt on it until a year has passed over it."4

(Tr-Msh. 6.)

14 Umm Salamah said, I used to wear ornaments of gold. So I said, O Messenger of Allāh! Is this hoard? He said:

"Whatever reaches the limit that thou shouldst pay zakāt out of it, and the zakāt is paid thereon it is not hoarding."

(AD-Msh. 6:1.)

15 Samurah reported, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, commanded us that we should pay zakāt out of that which we provided for trade.6

(AD-Msh 6:1.)

16 'Amr ibn Shu'aib reported on the authority of his grandfather, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, addressed the people and said:

"Beware! Whoever is the guardian of an orphan who has property, should trade with it, and should not leave it (undeveloped), so that the zakāt should consume it."

(Tr-Msh. 6)

17 Abū Hurairah said When the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, died and Abū Bakr became (his successor), and those of the Arabs who would disbelieve disbelieved, 'Umar said, How dost thou fight people (who profess Islām), and the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said "I have been commanded to continue fighting against people until they say, There is no god but Allāh8; whoever says this will have his property and his life safe unless there is a due against him and his reckoning is with Allāh." (Abū Bakr) said, By Allāh! I shall fight those who make a difference between prayer and zakāt, for zakāt is a tax on property; By Allāh! if they withhold from me even a she-kid which they used to make over to the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, shall fight against them for their withholding it. 'Umar said, By Allāh! Allāh opened the heart of Abū Bakr (to receive the truth), so I knew that it was true.

(B. 24:1.)

18 Abn Humaid said, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, pointed a man from among the Asad to collect the zakāt of Banū Sulaim--he was called Ibn al-Lutbiyyah--so when he came to him, he called him to account for it.10

(B. 24:67.)

19 Sahl reported, The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said "When you have formed an opinion, then take (the zakāt) and leave one-third; if you do not leave one-third, leave one fourth."11

(Tr-Msh. 6:l.)

20 'Abd Allāh reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"In (the produce of) lands watered by rain and springs or in what is watered by water running on the surface of the ground is one-tenth, and (in) what is watered by wells one-twentieth."12

(B. 24:55.)

21 Abū Hurairah reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said:

"...In treasure-trove (or minerals) one-fifth (shall be taken by the state)."

(B. 24:66.)

22 Ibn 'Abbās said Amber is not treasure-trove; it is a thing which the sea casts forth. And Hasan said, In amber and pearls one-fifth (shall be taken by the state).

(B. 24:65 )

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