What is Mahashivaratri?
In Hinduism, Mahashivaratri (also called Shiva Ratri) is the Great Festival of Shiva. It is held on the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month of Phalguna. Mahashivaratri is especially important to Saivites (devotees of Shiva), but it is celebrated by most Hindus.
The day of Mahashivaratri is spent in meditation on Shiva and fasting (some may take water or fruit). Temples dedicated to Shiva are filled with devotees offering prayers. The Shiva linga at the temple or in one's home is bathed with milk, honey and water, and offerings are made to Shiva in the form of Bilva leaves, fruits, and other specially prepared foods. Offering Bilva leaves to Shiva on Mahashivaratri is considered especially auspicious.
Devotees sing hymns and chant mantras, especially Om namah Shivaya. Some sit around a sacred fire and toss offerings of grain into the flames while chanting to Shiva. After fasting and meditating throughout the day, a vigil is held all night with continued prayers and meditation.
Various legends are associated with the holiday of Mahashivaratri. One is the popular legend of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk, in which the gods inadvertantly unearthed a poison that threatened to destroy the world. Shiva saved the day by drinking the poison, which accounts for his blue throat in some Hindu art.
It is said that Shiva was strong enough to handle the poison, but he had to stay awake all night as part of his healing. The other gods helped get him through the night by entertaining him with dances and other distractions. This is commemorated on Mahashivaratri, when Shiva's followers keep him company through the night.
Another legend tells the story of a hunter who climbed a Bilva tree to escape a hungry lion. The lion sat down beneath the tree and waited for the hunter to fall. As he waited in the tree all night, the hunter plucked leaves from the Bilva tree to stay awake.
The leaves, which are sacred to Shiva, fell on a Shiva linga that happened to be at the base of the tree. Shiva was pleased by the offering, inadvertant though it was, and saved the hunter. This event is commemorated on Mahashivaratri by staying up all night and offering Bilva leaves.References
- "festivals." John Bowker, ed., Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions (Oxford UP, 2000), p. 193.
- "Hinduism." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 2005.
- Linda Johnsen, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Hinduism (Alpha, 2002), p. 241.
- Dadaji, "Mahashivaratri: The Story of an Eternal Festival." 1972.
- Linda Johnsen, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Hinduism.
- Om Lata Bahadur, Book of Hindu Festivals and Ceremonies (2nd edition).
- Paul Younger, Playing Host to Deity: Festival Religion in the South Indian Tradition.
- Dilip Kadodwala, Hindu Festivals.
- Swasti Mitter, Hindu Festivals.
- Cath Senker, My Hindu Year: A Year Of Religious Festivals.