(1484-1531) Swiss reformer and humanist. He taught a purely symbolic interpretation of the Eucharist (as opposed to both transubstantiation and consubstantiation), accepted state action in religious matters, and died on the battlefield at Cappel, Switzerland (near Zurich).
The supreme ruling body of the Bahá'í Faith, headquartered in Haifa, Israel. Its nine members are elected every five years. Bahá'ís regard its judgments as divinely guided and authoritative.
(Greek apocatastasis; from apokath'istemi, "to restore"). Doctrine that every creature, including the devil, will be reconciled with God in the end. Therefore hell either does not exist or is temporary. Most notably taught by Origen of Alexandria in ancient Christianity and Universalist denominations of modern Christianity.
Genre of Vedic texts that were the last to be added (and thus also known as Vedanta, "the end of the Vedas), written between 1000 and 500 BCE. The Upanishads are much less concerned with Vedic gods and rituals than other Vedic texts, and focus on philosophical and mystical questions about reality. The Upanishads contain the teaching that atman (the self) is Brahman (ultimate reality), and that knowledge of Brahman brings release (moksa) from the suffering of rebirth (samsara). The later Upanishads are less philosophical and more sectarian.