The hypothetical text that many biblical scholars believe was used as a source by the authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. It consists of all passages Matthew and Luke have in common that are not found in Mark.
(Arabic, "direction"). Direction of the Ka'ba in Mecca, towards which all prayer must face.
(from Latin for "14"). The early Christian custom, especially common in Asia Minor, of observing Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan, whether or not it fell on a Sunday. Towards the end of the second century, Pope Victor suppressed Quartodecimanism and excommunicated the Bishop of Ephesus, who refused to comply. This action was rebuked by St. Irenaeus and most churches in Asia Minor retained the practice. It died out by the fifth century.
(from Latin, "fifty"). The Sunday before Ash Wednesday. The word gets its name from its previous usage, which was for the 50-day period between that Sunday and Easter.
(Latin, "five ways") The five arguments by which St. Thomas Aquinas sought to prove the existence of God.
("reciters"). Professional reciters of the Qur'an, who usually have memorized the text. In early Islamic history, qurra' were called upon to elucidate unclear passages in the written text, often resulting in various schools of interpretation among qurra.