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Glossary of Confucianism

This glossary of Confucianism provides definitions of terms related to Confucianism, with links to full articles where available.

de
(Chinese) virtue
jiao (chiao)
"teaching" or "religion." Generally refers to a religion, but the word only acquired this meaning around 1900 and does not always mean "religion." The original and literal meaning is "teaching."
li
(Chinese) ritual norms
ren
(Chinese) humaneness or benevolence; central principle of Confucianism
rujia
"Confucian teaching." Confucianism as a philosophy or school of thought.
rujiao
"Confucian religion." Refers to Confucianism as a religion or religious group.
ruxue
"Confucian learning." Confucianism as a philosophy or school of thought.
sanjiao
"three teachings." Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. The phrase originated in 9th-century China.
shu
(Chinese) reciprocity
xiao
(Chinese) filial piety
zhong
(Chinese) loyalty to one's true nature
zongjiao
(Chinese, "principle-teaching.") Religion. Term introduced to China in the late 19th century in the context of Buddhism.

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