Who was Shemaiah?
In the Hebrew Bible or Christian Old Testament, Shemaiah was a prophet who, together with Ahijah, protested against Rehoboam's contemplated war against the ten revolted tribes (1 Kings 12:22-24 = 2 Chronicles 11:2-4 ).
He declared that the rebellion had divine sanction. The second Greek account knows nothing of Ahijah in this connection and introduces Shemaiah at the gathering at Shechem where both Jeroboam and Rehoboam were present; it narrates that on this occasion Shemaiah (not Ahijah) rent his garment and gave ten parts to Jeroboam to signify the ten tribes over which he was to become king. (This version, however, is not taken very seriously, because of its numerous inconsistencies.)
Shemaiah also prophesied at the invasion of Judah by Shishak (2 Chronicles 12:5-7 ). His message was to the effect that as the princes of Israel had humbled themselves, God's wrath against their idolatrous practices would not be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak (2 Chronicles 13:7 ). He is mentioned as the author of a history of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 12:15 ).
(2) Son of Shecaniah (1 Chronicles 3:22 , Σαμαιά , Samaiá ), a descendant of Zerubbabel. This is also the name of one of the men who helped to repair the wall (Nehemiah 3:29 , Σεμεία , Semeı́a ()א compare Curtis, ICC , in 1 Chronicles 3:17-24 )).
(3) A S imeonite (1 Chronicles 4:37 , Codex Vaticanus Συμεών , Sumeṓn ; Codex Alexandrinus Σαμαίας , Samaı́as ), identical, perhaps, with the Shimei of 1 Chronicles 4:26 , 1 Chronicles 4:27 .
(4) A R eubenite (1 Chronicles 5:4 , Codex Vaticanus Σεμεεί , Semeeı́ ; Codex Alexandrinus Σεμείν , Semeı́n ), called Shema in 1 Chronicles 5:8 .
(5) A M erarite Levite (1 Chronicles 9:14 ; Nehemiah 11:15 , Σαμαιά , Samaiá ), one of those who dwelt in Jerusalem.
(6) A L evite of the family of Jeduthun, father of Obadiah or Abda (1 Chronicles 9:16 , Σαμειά , Sameiá , Codex Alexandrinus Σαμίας , Samı́as , called "Shammua" in Nehemiah 11:17 ).
(7) Head of the Levitical Kohathite clan of Elizaphan in the time of David (1 Chronicles 15:8 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμαίας , Samaı́as ; Codex Alexandrinus Σαμαιά , Samaiá ; Codex Sinaiticus Σαμέας , Saméas ; 1 Chronicles 15:11 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμίας , Samı́as ; Codex Alexandrinus Σεμείας , Semeı́as ; Codex Sinaiticus Σαμαί , Samaı́ ). He may be the same person as (8).
(8) The scribe (1 Chronicles 24:6 ), the son of Nethanel, who registered the names of the priestly courses.
(9) A K orahite Levite, eldest son of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 26:4 , 1 Chronicles 26:6 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμαίας , Samaı́as ; Codex Alexandrinus Σαμείας , Sameı́as ; 1 Chronicles 26:7 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμαί , Samaı́ ; Codex Alexandrinus Σεμεία , Semeı́a ).
(10) A L evite (2 Chronicles 17:8 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμούας , Samoúas ; Codex Alexandrinus Σαμουίας , Samouı́as ). One of the commission appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach the book of the Law in Judah. The names of the commissioners as a whole belong to a period later than the 9th century. (Gray, HPN , 231).
(11) One of the men "over the free-will offerings of God" (2 Chronicles 31:15 , Σεμεεί , Semeeı́ ).
(12) A L evite of the family of Jeduthun in the reign of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29:14 ), one of those who assisted in the purification of the Temple.
(13) A chief of the Levites (2 Chronicles 35:9 ), called "Samaias" in Septuagint and 1 Esdras 1:9.
(14) A "chief man" under Ezra (Ezra 8:16 ), called "Maasmas" and "Samaias" in 1 Esdras 8:43, 44.
(15) A member of the family of Adonikam (Ezra 8:13 , Codex Vaticanus Σαμαία , Samaı́a ; Codex Alexandrinus Σαμαειά , Samaeiá ; "Samaias" in 1 Esdras 8:39).
(16) A priest of the family of Harim who married a foreign wife (Ezra 10:21 ), called "Sameus" in 1 Esdras 9:21.
(17) A layman of the family of Harim who married a foreign wife (Ezra 10:31 ), called "Sabbeus" in 1 Esdras 9:32.
(18) A prophet (Nehemiah 6:10-14 , Codex Vaticanus σεμεεί , Semeeı́ ; Codex Alexandrinus Σεμεί , Semeı́ ), employed by Sanballat and Tobiah to frighten Nehemiah and hinder the rebuilding of the wall.
(19) One of the 24 courses of priests, 16th under Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:6 , Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus Σεμείας , Semeı́as ), 15th under Joiakim (Nehemiah 12:18 ; Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus Σεμεία , Semeı́a ), and 21st under Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:8 , Σαμαιά , Samaiá ), mentioned in connection with the dedication of the wall.
(20) A priest, descendant of Asaph (Nehemiah 12:35 ).
(21) A singer (or clan) participating in the dedication of the wall (Nehemiah 12:36 ).
(22) Father of the prophet Urijah (Jeremiah 26:20 , Codex Vaticanus and Codex Alexandrinus Σαμαίας , Samaı́as ; Codex Sinaiticus Μασέας , Maséas ).
(23) A false prophet who was upbraided by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 29:24-32 ) for attempting to hinder his work. He is styled "the Nehelamite" and was among those carried into captivity with Jehoiachin. In opposition to Jeremiah, he predicted a speedy ending to the captivity. Jeremiah foretold the complete destruction of Shemaiah's family.
(24) Father of Delaiah, who was a prince in the reign of Zedekiah (Jeremiah 36:12 ).
(25) "The great," kinsman of Tobias (Tobit 5:13 ).
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