Chart of Protestant Reformers



This chart provides basic facts on notable reformers and leaders in the Protestant Reformation. A few Catholics, like Bucer and Erasmus, are included here because of their importance in the Protestant Reformation. Click links in the chart for biographies and other information.

Image Name(s) Birth Death Cause of Death Education
Vocation(s)
Associated Tradition
Works
Overview
James Arminius; Jacobus Arminius; Jacob Hermansz 1560
Oudewater, Netherlands
1609
Leiden, Netherlands
Natural causes Leiden, Basel, Geneva professor at Leiden, theologian Reformed Orations; Declaration of Sentiments; Apology; Disputations Rejected Calvinist predestination; laid theological foundation for John Wesley.
Theodore Beza 1519 1605 Natural causes Orleans professor of Greek at Geneva, minister, theologian Reformed Confession of the Christian Faith; On the Rights of Magistrates Succeeded Calvin as religious leader of Geneva. Hardened Calvin's doctrine of predestination. Discovered Codex Bezae.
Martin Bucer; Martin Butzer 1491 Feb. 28, 1551
Cambridge, England
Natural causes; body exhumed and burnt in 1557. Heidelberg former Dominican monk, professor of Divinity at Cambridge Lutheran   Known as the Peacemaker of the Reformation. Humanist. Led Reformation in Strasbourg. Tried to reconcile Lutherans, Reformed and Catholics.




Heinrich Bullinger Jul. 18, 1504
Bremgarten, Switzerland
Sept. 17, 1575
Zurich, Switzerland
Natural causes Cologne theologian Reformed first and second Helvetic Confessions Influenced by Erasmus, Luther, Melanchthon. Succeeded Zwingli at Zurich. Opposed presbyterianism.
John Calvin; Jean Cauvin 1509
Noyon,
France
1564
Geneva, Switzerland
Natural causes Paris and Orleans professor, minister Reformed Institutes of the Christian Religion Led Geneva; developed doctrine of sovereignty of God
Thomas Cranmer 1489
Nottinghamshire, England
Mar. 21, 1556
Oxford, England
Burned at the stake Cambridge Archbishop of Canterbury Anglican first and second Book of Common Prayer; Thirty-Nine Articles Played large role in English Reformation. Involved in Henry VIII's divorce; was burned at the stake under Queen Mary after recanting his recantation.
Thomas Cromwell c. 1485 July 28, 1540 Beheaded for treason unknown Member of Parliament, vicar-general Anglican none Supervised dissolution of monasteries. Attempted marriage alliance between Henry VIII and German Lutherans.
Desiderius Erasmus; Erasmus of Rotterdam; Erasmus Roterodamus c. 1469
Rotterdam, Netherlands
1536
Basel, Switzerland
Natural causes Gouda and Deventer humanist scholar Catholic Praise of Folly; Handbook of the Christian Soldier; Complaint of Peace; On Free Will Moderate reformer; witty satirist; translated Latin Bible into Greek.
George Fox 1624
Fenny Drayton, Leicestershire, England
Jan. 13, 1691 Natural causes none shoemaker Quaker Journal Founder of the Society of Friends (Quakers). Emphasized the Inner Light of Christ. Frequent missionary journeys.
Jan Hus; John Huss 1373
Husinec, Czech Republic
July 6, 1415
Constance, Germany
Burned at the stake Prague priest, professor of philosophy at Prague Catholic (pre-Reformation)   Influenced by Wycliffe. Emphasized right living over sacraments. Opposed veneration of images and indulgences. Became national hero.
John Knox c. 1514
Haddington, Scotland
1572 Natural causes Glasgow and St. Andrews priest, notary, private tutor, preacher Reformed The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women; History of the Reformation of Religion in Scotland Went to Geneva in 1553, influenced by Calvin. Returned to Scotland in 1559 and led Scottish Reformation.
Hugh Latimer c. 1485 Oct. 16, 1555
Oxford, England
Burned at the stake Cambridge Bishop of Worcester Anglican Many sermons; most famous is "Of the Plough" Twice imprisoned by Henry VIII. Leading preacher under Edward VI. Burned at the stake under Mary Tudor.
Martin Luther; Martin Luder 1483
Eisleben, Germany
1546
Eisleben, Germany
Natural causes Leipzig professor, priest Lutheran 95 Theses; Freedom of a Christian; Bondage of the Will; Smaller and Larger Catechisms Sparked the Reformation by protesting against indulgences. Taught justification by faith alone, authority of scripture alone. Married former nun.
Philip Melanchthon; Philip Schwartzerdt ("Black earth") 1497 1560 Natural causes Heidelberg and Tubingen professor of Greek at Wittenberg Lutheran Loci Communes Luther's colleague at Wittenburg. Attempted reconciliation with Reformed and Catholics. Systematized Luther's theology.
Nicholas Ridley c. 1500 1555 Burned at the stake Cambridge chaplain to Cranmer and Henry VIII, Bishop of London   Helped produce Book of Common Prayer Burned at the stake with Latimer.
Menno Simons 1496 1561 Natural causes   parish priest Anabaptist (Mennonite)   Taught believers' baptism, non-resistance, symbolic Eucharist. Founder of Mennonites.
Philip Jakob Spener 1635
Alsace
1705 Natural causes Strasbourg preacher Lutheran, Pietist Pia Desideria Founder of Pietism.
William Tyndale; William Tindale; William Huchyns c. 1494 Oct. 6, 1536
Brussels, Belgium
Strangled and burned at the stake Oxford and Cambridge translator Anglican English translation of NT; Obedience of a Christian Man; Parable of the Wicked Mammon Lived in exile on the Continent, where he published English NT. Executed.
John Wesley June 17, 1703
Epworth, Lincolnshire, England
Mar. 2, 1791
London, England
Natural causes Oxford Anglican minister, founder of Methodism Anglican, Methodist A Plain Account of Christian Perfection; Advice to a People Called Methodist Founded Methodism; adopted Arminian doctrine of free will; emphasized sanctification.
John Wycliffe; John Wyclif c. 1330
Yorkshire, England
Dec. 31, 1384
Oxford, England
Natural causes; body exhumed and burnt in 1415 Oxford professor, theologian, philosopher at Oxford Catholic (pre-Reformation) On the Church; On the Truth of Sacred Scripture Translated Bible into English; rejected many Catholic practices; sent out preachers called Lollards. Posthumously declared heretic .
Ulrich Zwingli; Huldrych Zwingli Jan. 1, 1484
Wildhaus, Switzerland
Oct. 11, 1531
Kappel (near Zurich), Switzerland
Killed in battle against Catholic cantons. Bern, Vienna and Basel priest, military chaplain, People's Preacher at Zurich's Old Minster Reformed On True and False Religion; 67 Conclusions; Concerning Freedom and Choice of Food; The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God Introduced reformation ideas to Zurich and throughout Switzerland. Said nothing should be believed or practiced that is not in the Bible. Argued with Luther over the Eucharist. Persecuted Anabaptists.


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Chart of Reformers